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KZG Ceremony Special Contributions | Ethereum Foundation Blog

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The Special Contribution Period for the KZG Ceremony ran 01-16 April 2023. This allowed participants to contribute in ways that may not have been possible in the Open Contribution period. While the Ceremony only needs a single honest participant to provide a secure output, Special Contributions provide additional assurances beyond a standard entropy contribution:

  • computing over the entropy in an isolated environment (eg. on an airgapped machine, wiping and physically destroying hardware) means that it’s unlikely for a malicious entity to have extracted the entropy at any point.
  • detailed documentation (explore links below) attached to real reputations are unlikely to all have been coopted or faked by a malicious coordinating entity. The records are available for future observers to explore.
  • different hardware and software limits correlated risk
  • differentiated entropy generation (eg. measuring an explosion) prevents the Ceremony output being compromised by some failure in the regular entropy generation (eg. the hosted interface)
  • contributions involving large groups of people are harder to fake than those with only one person. This allowed participants to contribute in ways that may not have been possible in the Open Contribution period. For example, needing more time than the typical slot or a unique method of generating entropy that included a larger group.

This post is a public record of the Special Contributions with information on methodology, where to find them in the transcript, and links to documenting media.

01 – Cryptosat

The Cryptosat team kicked off the Special Contribution period with a contribution from space aboard their Crypto 2 satellite. Read about what they did and how on their blog.


Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

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Additional Links:


02 – The KZG Marble Machine

The KZG Marble Machine is an artwork\contraption with different sections of track showing off different phases of Ethereum’s history. The machine uses 23 sensors to measure small fluctuations in each marble’s run as well as various environmental factors to ensure the randomness is unbiased. Read xofee.eth‘s writeup here or even 3D print your own machine.


Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

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Additional Links:


03 – Mr. Moloch’s Ephemeral Album II

smartcontracts.eth brought 40 members of the New York Ethereum community together to make an album together over the course of a day. The result was an ephemeral album: attendees got to listen to the music while it was recorded by 4 air-gapped laptops running USB-hosted Tails using their onboard microphones. Kelvin’s write-up here.

Ethereum Address 1: 0x3795a5115626d4ada732efbfd51d70d4b30832ff
Ethereum Address 2: 0x4cdc4f412355f296c2cf261210cc9274404e442b
Ethereum Address 3: 0x68108902de3a5031197a6eb3b74b3b033e8e8e4d
Ethereum Address 4: 0x3a953298098cadcb621a40c1efcfb7dd73b727af
Start Time: 2023-04-08 20:00:00 UTC
End Time: 2023-04-09 04:00:00 UTC
Client Implementation: go-kzg-ceremony-client
BLS Library: gnark-crypto
Write Up Blog post on Kelvin Fichter’s website
Tweet by contributor: Twitter

Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

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04 – Dog Dinner Dance Dynamics

@saint-rat fed their dog, Charlie, biscuits which they had scatted over the floor. They then used a python script and computer vision to track the location of Charlie and the biscuits as he ate them. This information was folded into the entropy contribution before destroying the SD card and flash-drive used by the Raspberry Pi for the contribution. Read the details here.


Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

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Additional Links:


05 – CZG-Keremony – a pure JS KZG ceremony client

CZG-Keremony is a KZG ceremony client written entirely in JavaScript by the DSRV Labs team. Under the hood, it uses @paulmillr’s [https://github.com/paulmillr/noble-curves](noble-curves BLS implementation), so this is an end-to-end contribution done in pure JS. rootwarp.eth and @kim201212 performed an airgapped contribution on a RaspberryPi 2 before destroying the SD card.

Ethereum Address: 0xa455150c6b91d08faa57dc664b916e1ddd1c4030
Start Time: 2023-04-11 08:00:00 UTC
End Time: 2023-04-11 12:00:00 UTC
Client Implementation: CZG-Keremony
BLS Library: noble-curves
Tweet by contributor: Twitter

Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

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06 – Improvised Theatre

Members of the Student Theatre Association in Eindhoven, Doppio, recorded an imporv theater performance as a source of entropy for the ceremony. The performance comprised of both acting and singing using the structure of a soap-opera and a “revolving door” to guide the performance. Read more about what they did on their blog post.


Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

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07 – A Calculating Car

Stephen Solis drove around in a car equipped with a Comma 3 self-driving module. He then recorded the data from the car’s ODB port to an NVMe drive which was destroyed after using the data as an entropy source.

Ethereum Address: 0x192ccacdd6da99463e1e8a76223ea07a6cde3479
Start Time: 2023-04-12 20:00:00 UTC
End Time: 2023-04-13 00:00:00 UTC
Client Implementation: go-kzg-ceremony-client
BLS Library: gnark-crypto
Write Up TBD

Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

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_BLS Signatures:

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08 – A noisy city

Jordin Coppard recorded the noise of Sydney from a balcony and used the raw data stream as an entropy source.

Ethereum Address: 0xf4BA33f683aCA91128A8915de6664cB662e59af2
Start Time: 2023-04-13 04:00:00 UTC
End Time: 2023-04-13 08:00:00 UTC
Client Implementation: go-kzg-ceremony-client
BLS Library: gnark-crypto
Write Up TBD
Tweet by contributor: Twitter

Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

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09 – Exothermic Entropy

The Mach34 Team detonated 4 pounds of a binary explosive called Tannerite and used a RaspberryShake to record the seismic activity as entropy. Afterwards, they destroyed the storage media with a rifle. Read about their escapades here.


Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

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10 – The Sferic Project

Digital artist, Matt DesLauriers sampled the Very Low Frequency radio (300 Hz and 13 kHz) radio spectrum on southern coast of the United Kingdom to capture lightning strikes and other atmospheric noise collectively known as sferics. This data was then fed into the ceremony as a source of randomness.


Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

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2^15: 0x96a1bbb71fdaa3d21438505bc651d1033011635946685e3f48e17d3fbbc1fe0f22e92fa359572eaf536edf4d17ac49f307ac3c8c4986d74d5e2edbb5277ee2a5fbc65250bbc1497ba20d51268647e5293677221854202eb40acf4f72b5029a98


11 – The Great Belgian Beer Entropy Caper

heeckhau.eth and sponnet.eth contributed entropy by video-recording the pouring and fizzing of Belgian beers using a webcam and an AVADO i5 box before destroying the USB flash drive used for live-booting Ubuntu with a hammer.


Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

2^12: 0xb4df712ca54b240fbc81a5afb52409fa398d8699fa8738825aa68ef9209a813bffced68d86a18a2f6995f5c803d86ce40d4f4eb729a78fbfef2ebe400ebdd847d07b95f197dba5eb8784ec49e6ac6c36990a539f6d11994d43a7dd157648977e
2^13: 0x802a188a831aaee5b64121ea1c31f385a5f0f68145b004fbbfa5ce240396122cf137d7a2c7e0e09a199994fbb350462601008062a60535fd078c978ad7603e2c0e73ab121807b2410653c332282330a59ea1faa8935c69ec08d8c8c3cad44401
2^14: 0x9013192130cc5f1b4476488b8ea2b6e0d6e1dd377faec09afd66d3bf09b99a274206f556acf1b8b78b095a3e0ea16c7f06ad803e1294edb81a890ec290350dd3964e10ad0980d1b306551ca192960149bf1daa6fb381cdae3a68e6a911964812
2^15: 0xa45306ac93de744a34d30a65799ff37eb91e495e3a90299227b818c70a4a6cba2f1e29024d8c3e7adae50dcb96e9ff33195167e902d97e3efc73388c2374265c526cb88bd9bff46eef4080470d17dd46e37d6bfc1c9cee35739ce7e537870fc0


12 – KZGamer – summoning Dankshard with a dice-tower

Justin Florentine built a dice tower that could both collect entropy for the ceremony and help determine the outcomes of his table-top games. The dice tower was a sealed box which rolled the dice before collecting them in a sealed chamber in which they were photographed by a Raspberry Pi (and camera). Then computer vision was used to read the dice which were used to determine the success/failure/damage of a given roll while adding the dice values to an internal entropy accumulator. A trapdoor then opened to return the dice to the player. By the end of the game, 1024 bits of entropy had been collected and the SD card used in the Pi was burned until destruction.


Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

2^12: 0x9157bfd6d53e6f9cd427aa84acfe47e7f1224ab99ac2c606ccea8dec3ba85a73d3b29c74422461697e9d86e36baa7f8d02add99798a40e2f32c2cd7185b13ad86f57fb7df418c708727d9ff2f85cc220f66353408151075785caf78f3b6c4dbe
2^13: 0x92ae7793b9ba21e8dcfa88e4722acd8b5282d0ad9f9407db13b966797d8a98474986e3beb0d6271fb4fe68ea485dd8ff05144addcf1af56f69a2c26ad5e6009b481e77f431247a03c22e458da0f5264e1d0db7e3e5aa6f1fc93cf539271b77fc
2^14: 0x908b21c002bb0a336e8c22da6c5f3ae688c7319f72045eff8817233fbb3c29a652f04a435e4392507462b4530f80db5c102844255ec594c1b15b3b2ae9f3a3797436846f754e8769f4c5450902d2f3d704971fb998881aeea998c64d37198391
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13 – Catropy

Proof of Cat or Catropy is a project to collect entropy from cats playing with a ball. This was done by embedding a custom PCB with an ESP-32 microcontroller and an MPU-6500 6-axis IMU into a knitted ball and handing it to cat (or human). The ESP-32 would then collect data from the accelerometers and gyroscopes, hash it into an entropy accumulator and serve that entropy over WiFi to the server performing the PoT calculations. Visit proofof.cat for details on the multiple contributions, hardware, software, a video of the contribution, and how this project went further to support cat shelters.


Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

2^12: 0x90bb2d0b11f285ed5a9cf06ed435c42dec65e98f7d31a6569d21360ed62ad2e6160d8eec56bddb32c6c0c50b8333908016d1d3684208522be38e5c4d968800fa09d048a5711a5d286c31e5b39861ce2adf65ee4c401569eea12a15a9be2d8125
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2^14: 0xb258f5e8c3b413f594a1e97f797d246a12c0e669bb6d75cbb5fe97e467528fdc3429beabb51b352d162f768a33d366bf022a0a2f35a6ab70f714bd3bbccbb8dff3751bfb86243e18a81a92dba5870d692c910ae757675106a0dac41682382798
2^15: 0x995bc110eff9b401282d4674753f8dff975d78601f1a3695e1c14f99af0b58bf8acf47c1bfff5e3d9100fef5bb2b8a140a415551034eb9494775c512ee5cc9fc47f031dad6b454f96ecd8632e94306ca8f4decf67c6e6a3974a46cba586d84dc

Catropy PCB
Proof of Proof of Cat

14 – srsly – an iOS KZG Ceremony client

srsly is a KZG Ceremony client (and BLS library!) for iOS written in Swift by @srikrishnamurthy. The library is available on GitHub vishady721/swift-kzg-ios-client.


Powers of Tau Pubkeys:

2^12: 0xb2c3a994728990489e9b4baccf2ca2d178478b8adb60e9d339bb8d6305d9a726e20be519208b03189c175d6b1e1231c81079cca38a8fef5b576b714225dab3e46241d18510b19de9639b84e136f3fef055a60ef610ba2daeaf6df03583b80665
2^13: 0xb32320ac9ea45e0e7e83809e441166ff82fb55eaf5b617f04b7971c0972780f41ffab86d5e8b729c4886acf25212cd6102df3edee2367278370ffe71f7021d7abb4dc2b10fb01f965c34c02f249f93b2c2e1de250cd54c094be8561e004f0678
2^14: 0xb9dcedee0b1467900783e50cdd08f9bc849af9cc9ae7f81df3aeecaaec2df83c68525c7fe90adf82a3e6999dad693c451166b3f5304258713dff5faf73ee4d7eedadc18ae80150fe44252b33f4820cb52feb6b1045db54668f2b3a5bd2654993
2^15: 0x8a000e8d0c2a591585307e1a98558f7dbab8d6867297870d70c8d66efb4c72972b84f233bf6b2938c5c2b9d6d009489605a6b547b6aa91bdd0b3fb2c799ccd5774131c1e12d993cd25bf16b682e95c2616e90be0a7302a0b126dedaf16ced798


Thanks to everyone that participated in the special contribution period of the KZG Ceremony!

If you participated in the Ceremony at any point, stay tuned for ways to participate in the public verification of the final transcript and POAP claiming before EIP-4844 goes live.



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